It was originally destined to contend against the Grecian hoplites as organised by Epaminondas 79 Regiments and divisions of the phalanx — hea Ty-armed infaqtry . 80 Light infantiy of the line — Hypaspistse, or Guards 82 Light troops generally — mostly foreigners 83 Macedonian cavalry— its excellence — how regimented 84 The select Macedonian Body-guards. Analogy of Alexander to the Greek heroes 95 Review and total of the Macedonian army in Asia 96 Chief Macedonian officers 98 Digitized by Google ▼i CONTENTS. speculated on his youth, or had adopted the epithets applied to him by Demosthenes. After displaying his force in various portions of l^^^^* Peloponnesus, Alexander returned to Corinth, where Alexander he convened deputies from the Grecian cities i'^jj^rator generally. 23 (Platarch confounds the proceedings of this year with those of the succeeding year). Accord- ingly Alexander proceeded thither forthwith, lea- ving Langarus to deal with the Illyrian tribe ' For the situation of Pelion, compare Livy, xxzi. Here he would be among the Pseonians and Agrianes, on the east — and the Dardani and Autariatse, seemingly on the north and west. ia danger of being cut off by Glaukias, and were only rescued by the arrival of Alexander himself with a reinforcement. Such was the feeling in Greece, during the long B.c.335. Though unable to carry the Kadmeia by surprise, they seized in the city, and put to death, Amyntas, a principal Macedonian officer, with Timolaus, one of the leading macedonizing Thebans^ They then immediately convoked a general assembly of the Thebans, to whom they earnestly appealed for a vigorous effort to expel the Macedonians, and re- conquer the ancient freedom of the city. [Part II Je'^th T' denounced as insane, really promised better at first Macedo. The enterprising ambition of Philip was well pleased to be nominated chief of Greece for the execution of this project. Though really a scheme of Macedonian appetite Pan-hd- and for Macedonian aggrandisement, the expedition tences set against Asia thus becomes thrust into the series of a Sder. In his youth, as a hostage at Thebes, he ' For an explanation of the improved arming of peltasts introduced by Iphikrates^ see Vol. The Grecian towns near the coast, and the few Macedonian towns in the interior, had citizen*hop- lites better armed ; but foot-service was not in honour among the natives, and the Macedonian in- fantry in their general character were hardly more than a rabble. Since the death of Philotas, the im* portant function of general of the Companion- cavalry had been divided between Hephaestion and Kleitus. Our geographical knowledge does not enable us to Terify these localities, or to follow Alexander in his marches of detail. C.337, It was at Baktra that Alexander celebrated hk Aiewnder '^^u'riage with the captive Roxana. At Pura the army obtained repose and refreshment, and was enabled to march forward into Karmania, where Kraterus joined them with his division from the Indus, and Kleander with the division which had been left at Ekbatana. They were accompanied by Deinarchus and by a Plataean named Solon, both of them passing for friends of Polysperchon^, The Athenian democracy, just reconstituted, which had passed the recent condemnatory votes, was disquieted at the news that Alexander had espoused the cause of Phokion and had recom- mended the like policy to his father. 66, Ilpoa-d€x6tv T(s ^ \m avrov (Alexander) ^o- Plutarch, Phokion, 33 ; Cornel. " Hie (Pho- cion), ah Agnonide accusatus, quod Pirseum Nicanori prodidisset, es consilii sententift, in custodiam conjectus, Athenas deductus eat, ut ibi de eo legibus fieret judicium." Plutarch says that Polysperchon, before he gave this hearing to both parties, ordered the Corinthian Deinarchus to be tortured and to be put to death. Either, therefore, there were two Corinthians, both bearing this same name (as Westcrmann supposes — Gesch. 476 another of the accused, was yet more harshly treated. The Royal Pages 86 Foreign auxiliaries — Grecian hoplites — Thessalian cavalry — Paeo- niaofl — Ulyrians — ^Thracians, &c 88 Magazines, war-offioe, and dep6t, at Pella 81) ^lacedonian aptitudes — ^purely military — military pride stood to them in lieu of national sentiment 90 Measures of Alexander previous to his departure for Asia. Page Greeks in Alexander's service — ^Eumenes of Kardia 99 Persian forces — Mentor and Memnon the Rbodians 100 Succession of the Persian crown — Ochos — ^Darius Codomannus • . Operations of Memnon before Alexander's arrival 103 Superiority of the Persians at sea : their imprudence in letting Alexander cross the Hellespont unopposed 104 Persian force assembled in Phrygia, under Arsites and others .... 121 He finds the first resistance at Miletus 122 Near approach of the Persian fleet. Having sur- mounted, in a shorter time than was supposed possi* ble, the difficulties of his newly-acquired position at home, he marched into Greece at the head of a formidable army, seemingly about two months after the death of Philip. The list of those cities which obejred the ^^^^^^ .^ summons is not before us, but probably it included the conven- nearly all the cities of Central Greece. De- miides, in the firagment of his oration remaining to us, makes no allu- sion to this proceeding of Demosthenes. ^^"* ^f equity and justice ^ But the convention itself en- uieirun- jcnns all its members to make war against trans- gressors ; and pursuant to this article, you ought to make war against Macedon^. 33, 34, and the remarks of Colonel Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, vol. If he then followed the course of the Erigon he would pass through the portions of Macedonia then called Deuriopia and Pela- gonia : he would go between the ridges of mountains, through which the Erigon breaks, called Nidje on the south, and Babuna on the north. ' In the face of this superior force, it was necessary to bring off the Macedonian army, through a narrow line of road along the river Eordaikus, where in some places there was only room for four abreast, with hill or marsh every- where around. absence of Alexander on his march into Thrace and ^^^Ji^^^ Illyria ; a period of four or five months, ending at ^^^^J",^„ August 335 B. Not only was Alexander thus long absence in absent, but he sent home no reports of his pro- by re^rt B ceedings. Expa- tiating upon the misdeeds of the garrison and upon the oppressions of those Thebans who governed by means of the garrison, they proclaimed that the happy moment of liberation had now arrived, through the recent death of Alexander. than that of the anti-Spartan conspirators in 380 b.c. a, ^ The Kadmcia was instantly summoned ; hopes being afd^from** pcrhaps indulged, that the Macedonian commander Greeks. Philip had probably caused the ci- but no ' tadel to be both strengthened and provisioned. gj^j^g QQ defied the Theban leaders, who did not feel themselves strong enough to give orders for an assault, as Pelopidas in his time was prepared to do, if surrender had been denied^ They contented themselves with drawing and guarding a double line of circumvallation round the Kadmeia, so as to prevent both sallies from within and supplies from without*. Grecian events, under the Pan-hellenic pretence of ^nng*of retaliation for the long past insults of Xerxes. They had no public interest in the victory of the invader, which could end only by reducing them to still greater prostration. At the period of Philip's accession, they were armed with nothing better than rusty swords and wicker shields, noway sufficient to make head against the inroads of their Thracian and Illy- rian neighbours ; before whom they were constantly Digitized by Google 76 HISTORY OF OREECE. compelled to flee for refuge up to the mountains \ Their condition was that of poor herdsmen, half- naked or covered only with hides, and eating from wooden platters : not much different from that of the population of Upper Macedonia three centuries before, when first visited by Perdikkas the ancestor of the Macedonian kings, and when the wife of the native prince baked bread with her own hands ^. as a cause and country, Alexander had never dis- couraged, and bad sometimes signally recompensed them. Moreover the family of Kleitus had been attached to Philip, by ties so ancient, that his sister, Lanik^, had been selected as the nurse of Alexander himself when a child. Amidst the at Baktra— rcposc aud festivitics connected with that event, mamage * with Roxr the Oriental temper which he was now acquinng demand for displayed itself more forcibly than ever. p no louger bc satisfied without obtaining prostration, from all. Kleander, accused of heinous crimes in his late up the river than Tatta; somewhere near Sehwan. It was pos- sible that Polysperchon might seek, with his power- ful army, both to occupy Athens and to capture Peiraeus, and might avail himself of Phokion (like Antipater after the Lamian war) as a convenient instrument of government. Now the person so named cannot be Deinarchus, the logo- grapher — of whom we have some specimens remaining, and who was alive even as late as 292 B. der Beredtsamkeit, sect 72), or the statement of Plutarch must allude to an order given but not carried into effect — which latter seems to me most probable. When he appealed to Polysperchon himself, as having been personally cognizant of his (the speaker's) good dispositions towards the Athenian people (he had been probably sent to Pella, as envoy for redress of grievances under the Anti- pat rian oligarchy), Polysperchon exclaimed — ** Do not utter falsehoods against me before the king." Moreover, king Philip himself was so incensed, as to start from his throne and snatch his spear ; with which he would have run Hegemon through, — imitating the worst impulses of his illustrious brother — had he not been held back by Poly- sperchon. Pbokion and his companions were delivered over as prisoners to the Athenian deputation, together with a letter from the king, intimating that in his conviction they were traitors, but that he left them to be judged by the Athenians, now restored to freedom and autonomy ^ The Macedonian Kleitus was instructed to con- fjjj^j'eye^i**^ vey them to Athens as prisoners under a guard. The assembly was mainly composed of Phokion's keenest enemies, the citizens just returned from exile or deportation ; among whom may doubtless have been intermixed more or less of non- qualified per- sons, since the lists had probably not yet been verified. This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. a Dd ijg^j ijggn gent over to Asia not long before, to be- wilh the ^ . That general, acting as guardian or prime minister to the kings of Alexander's family (who are now spoken of in the plural number, since Roxana had given birth to a ^ Diodor. renewed demand on the part of his soldiers for the promised presents. But Nikanor would give no other answer, except that he held his com- 2 H 2 Digitized by Google 468 HISTORY OF GREECE. mission from Kassander, to whom they must address their application^ He thus again tried to bring Athens into communication with Kassander. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. The war of Antigonus, first aigainst Eumenes in Kappadokia, next against Al- k etas and the other partisans of Perdikkas in Pisidia, lasted for many months^ but was at length success- Iblly finished'. Jhl^Athl-^ The occupation of Peiraeus in addition to Many- niaiu, as chia was a serious calamity to the Athenians, making well as to /v. Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. First Period of the Reign of Alexander the Great — Siege and Capture o T Thebes. "Hie fuit exitus nobilis- iiini Persarum, nee insontis modo, sed eximiae quoque benignitatis in regem.'^ The great favour which the beautiful eunuch Bagoas (though Anrian does not mention him) enjoyed with Alexander, and the exalted petition which he occupied, are attested by good contemporary evidence, especially the philosopher Diksearchus — see Athenac. Phokion was here guilty, at the very least, of culpable neglect, and probably of still more culpable treason, on an occasion seriously _ Diodor. 64; Plutarch, Phokion, 32; Cornelius Nepos, Pho- kion, 2. -Tk Alexander reiraeus, produced a strong sensation. 65, 67«e9.,73; and Athens, settle- ment of the feud between, v. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Page State of Greece at Alexander's accession — dependence on the Ma- cedonian kmgs 1 Unwilling subjection of the Greeks — influence of Grecian intel U- gence on Macedonia 2 Basis of Alexander's character— not Hellenic 3 Boyhood and education of Alexander ib. Presently (son of arrived a letter addressed to him by Oiympias her- chon)^"hia self, commanding him to surrender the place to the poikj^^ "" Athenians, upon whom she wished to confer entire *^* ^^^^' *■ mans; K.as- autonomy. 80 ; reipoval of Athenians to, on Xerxes's approach, v. Capture of Kelacnse 136 Appendix on the Macedonian Sanssa ib. Second and Third Asiatic Campidgns of Alexander — Battle of Issus — Siege of Tyre. He tried to open communication with the Persians in Asia Minor, and also, if we may believe Diodorus, with the Macedonian commander in Asia Minor, Attains. Attalus sent his letter to Alexander ; while the Per- sian king*, probably relieved by the death of Philip from immediate fear of the Macedonian power, despatched a peremptory refusal to Athens, inti- mating that he would furnish no more money^. ^ Discontent statcs also, the death of Philip excited aspirations bufno^J^ for freedom. ' This letter from Darius is distinctly alluded to, and even a sentence cited from it, by -ffischines adv. A young speaker named Pytheas is said to have opposed the vote in the Athenian assembly °. The Thebans suffered an oppression from » Arrian, i. But whatever might be the internal thoughts of Macedonian officers, they held their peace before Alexander, whose formidable character and exorbitant self-estimation would tolerate no criticism. He then passed out of Sogdiana into the neighbouring territory Paraetak Sn S, where there was another in- expugnable site called the Rock of Chori Snes, which he was also fortunate enough to reduce ^. He was a man of much literary and rhetorical talent, which he turned towards the composition of history — and to the history of recent times*. 6, 9-13) repreflent B the speech propomng divine honoun to have been delivered, not by Anaxarchus, but bj another lettered Greek, a Sicilian named Rleon. ' See the observation ascribed to him^ expressing envy towards Achi Ues for having been immortalised by Homer (Arrian, i. ^ It is said that Ephorus, Xenokrates, and Menedemus, all decliiied the invitation of Alexander (Plutarch, De Stoicorum Repugnantit Sy p. Respecting Menedemus, the fact can hardly be so ; he mnat have been then too young to be invited. He required larger doses of flattery, and had now come to thirst, not merely for the reputation of divine paternity, but for the actual manifestations of worship as towards a God. Curtius says that this treatment of Kallisthenes was followed by a kte repentance on the pert of Alexander (riii. On this point there is no other evidence — nor can I think the statement probable. At or near the river Kophen (Kabool river), he was joined by Taxiles, a powerful Indian prince, who brought as a present twenty-five elephants, and whose alliance was very valuable to him. These tribes were generally brave, and * Respeeting the rock called Aomot, a Taluable and daborate aitide, entitled " Gradus ad Aomon," has been published by Mijor Abbott in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. Major Abbott attempts to follow the march and operations of Alex- ander, from Alexandria ad Caucasum to the rock of Aomos (p. He shows highly probable reason for believing that the Aomos described by Arrian is the Mount Mahabunn, near the right bank of the Indns (lat. It had good soil sufficient for a thousand ploughs, and pure springs of water everywhere abounded. After having thus subdued the upper regions (above Attock or the confluence of the Kabul river) on the right bank of the Indus, he availed himself of some forests alongside to fell timber and build boats. Ciumingham and others, to have been the modem city oi Multan. He notices the great discrepancy in the various accounts given of this achievement and dangerous wound of Alexander. He established another military and naval post at Pattala, where the Delta of the Indus divided ; and he then sailed with a portion of his fleet down the right arm of the river to have the first sight of the Indian Ocean. • /• • 1 • — vindic- return, the common feeling of antipathy against tive mani- him burst out in furious manifestations* Agno- j^M^him nides the principal accuser, supported by Epikurus* iembiy? The decree was then passed ; after which the show of hands was called for.
His confidence in the physician Philippus, who cures him 152 Operations of Alexander in Rilikia 153 Id Gsurch of Alexander out of Kilikia, through Issus, to Myriandrus . On both these grounds, he in* vited several of them to accompany the army. but Kalli- sthenes obeyed, partly in hopes of procuring the re- constitution of his native city Olynthus, as Ari« stotle had obtained the like favour for Stageira*. His style is said hy Cicero to have been rhetorical ; but the Alexandrine critics included him in their Canon of Historians. In this chapter, Arrian Digitized by Google S94 HISTORY OF GREBCB. The reply of Kalli- sthenes is favourably heard by the gues U —the pro- position for worship is dropped. The halts of Alexander were formidable to friends and companions ; his marches, to the unconquered natives whom he chose to treat as enemies. This is the statement of Ptolemy ; who was himself concerned in the transactions, and was the officer through whom the conspiracy of ^e pages had been rerealed. We have here to make our election between Arrian and Curtius. He experienced no resistance until be reached the river Hydaspes (Jelum), on the other side of which the Indian prince Porus stood pre- pared to dispute the passage ; a brave man, with a formidable force, better armed than Indians gene- rally were, and with many trained elephants ; which * An Puui,i T.30, 16; v. s The halt of thirty days ia mentioned by Diodonia, xrii. For the proof that these operations took place in wmter, see the Talnabla citation from Aristobulus given m Straho (xy. Porus, a prince of gigantic stature, mounted on an elephant, fought with the utmost gallantry, rallying his broken troops and keeping them together until the last. 60), Alexander dwelt much upon the battle in his own letters. Captain Abbott (in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Dec. From tbenoe he proceeded onward in the same direction, across the Punjab — finding no enemies, but leaying de- tachments at suitable posts to keep up his comma* nications and ensure his supplies-— to the river Hy- draotes or Ravee ; which, though not less broad and full than the Akesines, was comparatively tranquil, so as to be crossed with facility \ Here some free Indian tribes, Kathaeans and others, had the courage to resist. " This was the only emotion which he manifested ; in other respects, his tranquillity and self-possession were resolutely maintained, during this soul-subduing march from the theatre to the prison, amidst the wailings of bis friends, the broken spirit of his four comrades, and the fiercest demonstrations of antipathy from his fellow-citizens generally.
Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. 39 They are encouraged by Alexander's long absence in Thrace, and by reports of his death 41 The Theban exiles from Athens get»possession of Thebes 42 They besiege the Macedonians in the Kadmeia, and entreat aid from other Greeks. «l Spa ttotc fic T nava-aa-Sai alaxp^s ertpois Digitized by Google 26 HISTORY OF GRBECE. rage me, I am prepared to make a formal motion- To declare war against the violators of the conven- tion, as the convention itself directs\'' A formal motion for declaring war would have brought upon the mover a prosecution under the Graphs Paranomdn. Much more do the Grecian cities dwindle into outlying append- ages of a newly-grown Oriental empire. It is only at the death of Alexander that the Grecian cities again awaken into active movement. Anian (v L 28) found thit festal progress mentioned in some authoritiesi bat not in others. A season of excessive licence to the soldiers, after their extreme suffering in Gedrosia, was by no means unnatural to grant. Orsines, satrap of Persis, was however accused of connivance in the deed, as well as of various acts of murder and spoliation : according to Curtius, he was not only innocent, but had manifested both good faith and devotion to Alexander^ ; in spite of which he became a victim of the hostility of the favourite eunuch Bagoas, who both poisoned the king's mind • Anian, vi. They went to meet Alexander as he entered Attica — represented the impolicy of his relinquishing so important a military position as Peiraeus, while the war was yet unfinished, — and offered to co-operate with him for this purpose, by proper management of the Athenian public. T«i» yap *Avrt9rdr/povpia, ku\ prj napadidovai vols *A^yaio&s, P^Xpis &p 6 Kd(ra-av8pos Karano Xfpri Ojj, Digitized by Google Chap. As soon as the returning exiles found p Led^**^* themselves in sufl Scient numbers, they called for a Athenian revision of the list of state-ofl Scers, and for the re- ^^.'"^jy against establishment of the democratical forms.
You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http : //books . com/ ft H 4Zy S, •^6-3 r/2 ) HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY rr ' * Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google -A 2 *'.: r^:.. Digitized by Vj OOQIC ^v •• ^ /^' (G-JE 'O M ©IE (Bm OTM ; C6ogk O'lrmahi/^thy possesswrh of Rduuc.^ ru/yi£' r ., - ^^^i^ Digitized by Vj OOSI-^ .. Favourable sympathies shown towards them, but no positive aid 44 Chances of Thebes and liberation, not unfavourable 45 Rapid march and unexpected arrival of Alexander with his army before Thebes. wvl b', or tls ravrb b Uaiov apa Koi 6 Kaipbs Koi TO (rvp(p(pov avvb€dpdp Tf K€Vf a XXov iipa rti/^ xp6vov dvap€V€i T€ rrjs Idias ikfvdfpias apa Koi Ttjg r Siv SKKtav 'EXXi^ycav dirri Ka Pco'Bcu ; * Demosth. Accordingly, though intima- ting clearly that he thought the actual juncture (what it was, we do not know) suitable, he declined to incur such responsibility without seeing before- hand a manifestation of public sentiment sufficient to give him hopes of a favourable verdict from the Dikastery. But a speech so bold, even though not followed up by a motion, is in itself significant of the state of feeling in Greece during the months immediately following the Alexandrine convention. Yet if we attend to the sentiment rather than the language, we shall see that such an epithet applies with equal or greater propriety to Alexander himself. During all these eleven years, the history of Greece is almost a blank, except here and there a few scattered events. To what The Asiatic conquests of Alexander do not belong Asiatic pro- dlrcctly and literally to the province of an historian A? They were achieved by armies of which t^Grfclan ^^^ general, the principal ofl Scers, and most part of history. The Greeks who served with him were only auxiliaries, along with the Thracians and Pseonians. Moreover, it corresponds to the general conception of the returning march of Dionysus in antiquity, while the imitation of that god was quite in conformity with Alexander's turn of sentiment I have already remarked, that the silence of Ptolemy and Aristobulus is too strongly insisted on, both by Arrian and by others, as a reason for disbelieving affirmations respecting Alexander. 1) differ in their statements about the treat- ment of Kleander. Alex- ander was pleased with these suggestions, accepted Phokion with the others as his leading adherents at Athens, and looked upon Peiraeus as a capture to be secured for himself ^ Numerous returning • Diodor. They Phos*»pn and his passed a vote to depose those who had held office colleagues.
Anti- pater left; as viceroy at Pella ib, March of Alexander to the Hellespont. 105 Advice of Memnon, to avoid fighting on land, and to employ the fleet for aggressive warfare in Macedonia and Greece ib, Arsites rejects Memnon's advice, and determines to fight 106 The Persians take post on the river Granikus 107 Alexander reaches the Granikus, and resolves to force the passage at once, in spite of the dissuasion of Parmenio 108 Disposition of the two armiea 109 Battle of the Granikus 110 Cavalry battle. His life is saved by Kleitus 113 Complete victory of Alexander. Memnon is made comnumder- in-chief of the Persians 123 The Macedonian fleet occupies the harbour of Miletus, and keeps out the Persians. His de- bate with Parmenio 124 Alexander besieges Miletus. He was favourably received by the Thessalians, who passed a vote constituting Alexander head of Greece in place of his father Philip ; which vote was speedily confirmed by the Amphiktyonic assembly, convoked at Thermopylae. Wb know Corinth-^ only that the liacedaemonians continued to Stand refi!! Alexander asked by"sp^l" from the assembled deputies the same appointment which the victorious Philip had required and ob- tained two years before — the hegemony or headship of the Greeks collectively for the purpose of prose- cuting war against Persia*. The decree, naming Demosthenes among the envoys, is likely enough to have been passed chiefly by the votes of his enemies. o Zrctv irap' oir«y Trfv fjycfiovlay rfjs errl rovs Utpiras VOL. Be assured that all Greeks will see that the war is neither directed against them nor brought on by your faulf^. He would pass afterwards to Fiorina, and not to Bitolia. By a series of bold and skilful manoeuvres, and by effective employment of his battering-train or projectile machines to protect the rear-guard, Alexander completely baffled the enemy, and brought off his army without loss\ Moreover these Illyrians, who tad not known how to make use of such advantages of position, abandoned them- selves to disorder as soon as their enemy had re- treated, neglecting all precautions for the safety of their camp. The Thebans had declared themselves independent of him, and were besieging his garrison in the Kadmeia. Qrffiaioi dc f Uyiarop tlxov Digitized by Google 40 HISTORY OF GREECE. which most of the other cities were free — the pre- sence of a Macedonian garrison in their citadel ; just as they had endured, fifty years before, the curb of a Spartan garrison after the fraud of Phoe- bidas and Leontiades. 27 — about the working of the Macedonian garrison at Maroneia, in the time of Phihp son of Demetrius. Couriers were likely enough to be inter- cepted among the mountains and robbers of Thrace ; and even if they reached Pella, their despatches were not publicly read, as such communications would have been read to the Athenian assembly. They doubtless recalled the memory of Pelopidas, and the glorious enterprise, cherished by all Theban patriots, whereby he had rescued the city from Spartan occupation, forty-six years before. The as- sembly passed a vote, declaring severance from Macedonia, and autonomy of Thebes — and naming as Boeotarchs some of the returned exiles, with others of the same party, for the purpose of energetic measures against the garrison in the Kadmeia^. would surrcndcr it with as little resistance as the Fa Tourabie Spartan hanuost had done. They then sent envoys in the melan- choly equipment of suppliants, to the Arcadians and others, representing that their recent move- ment was directed, not against Hellenic union, but against Macedonian oppression and outrage, which pressed upon them with intolerable bitterness. I ^^ ^l^^' o r was advene call it a pretence, because it had ceased to be a real to his Hellenic feeling, and served now two different pur- poses ; first, to ennoble the undertaking in the eyes of Alexander himself, whose mind was very access- ible to religious and legendary sentiment, and who willingly identified himself with Agamemnon or Achilles, immortalised as executors of the collective vengeance of Greece for Asiatic insult — next, to assist in keeping the Greeks quiet during his ab- sence. They were likely to adhere to their leader as long as his power continued unimpaired, but no longer. On the other hand, though the Macedonian infantry was thus indifferent, the cavalry of the country was excellent, both in the Peloponnesian war, and in the war carried on by Sparta against Olynthus more than twenty years afterwards*. ' After describing the scene at Rome, when the Emperor Galba was Digitized by Google kanda. Mithrines, the governor of Sardis, who opened to him the gates of that almost impregnable fortress immediately after the battle of the Granikua — the traitor who perhaps, next to Darius himself, had done most harm to the Persian cause — ob- tained from him high favour and promotion ^ B. 328, The rude, but spirited tribes of Baktria and Sog- summer. Two of her sons had already perished in the Asiatic battles. ^j, worship, from Greeks and Macedonians as wdl as from Persians ; a public and unanimous recogni- tion of his divine origin and superhuman dignity. *' The Delta com- mencing about 130 miles above the sea, its northern apex would be somewhere midway between Hyderabad and Sehwan ; where local tra- ditions still speak of ancient cities destroyed, and of greater changes having occurred than in any other part of the course of the Indus." The constant changes in the course of the Indus, however (compare p. It seems plain that this was the project of Alexander, and that he counted on Phokion as a ready auxiliary in both. 5"^°"®'' '**, Mournful was the spectacle as they entered the brought for city ; being carried along the Kerameikus in carts, thew- ^'* through sympathising friends and an embittered Modon of multitude, until they reached the theatre, wherein Jjj^ciu^ the assembly was to be convened. When the assembly was about to be opened, the friends of Phokion moved, that on occasion of so important a trial, foreigners and slaves should be sent away.
Destruction of the Grecian in- fantry on the side of the Persians 114 Loss of the Persians — numbers of their leading men slain 116 Small loss of the Macedonians 116 Alexander's kindness to his wounded soldiers, and severe treatment of the Grecian prisoners 117 Unskilfulness of the Persian leaders. Capture of the city 125 The Persian fleet retires to Halikamassus. Alexander next advanced to Thebes, and from thence over the isthmus of Corinth into Pelopon- nesus. To the request of a prince at the head of an irresistible army, one p. It was always open to an Athenian citizen to accept or decline such an appointment. At this juncture, such a step for the maintenance of your own freedom as well as Hellenic freedom generally, will be not less opportune and advanta- geous than it is just'*^. See Kiepert's map of these regions — a portion of his recent map of Turkey in Europe — and Grisebach's description of the general track. Apprised of this carelessness, Alex- ander made a forced night-march back, at the head of his Agrianian division and light troops supported by the remaining army. Of this event, alike important and disastrous to The The- those who stood forward, the immediate antece- their i^d"* dents are very imperfectly known to us. In this case, as in the former, the effect was to arm the macedonising leaders with absolute power over their fellow-citizens, and to inflict upon the latter not merely the public mischief of extinguishing all free speech, but also multiplied individual insults and injuries, prompted by the lust and rapacity of rulers, foreign as well as domestic'. Accordingly we are not surprised to hear that ru- mours arose of his having been defeated and slain. ** Vix dum egresso Pisone, occisom in castris Othonem, yagus primum et incertus rumor, mox, at in mag- nis mendaciis, inttrfuisse se quidam, et vidisse a^rmabanty crednli hmk inter gaudentes et incuriosos Obvius in palatio Julius Atti- cus, speculator, cruentum gladium ostentans, oocistun h se Othonem exclamavit." It is stated that Alexander was really wounded in the head by a atone, in the action with the Illyrians (Plutarch, Fortun. Unfortunately for Thebes, none of these new Boeotarchs were men of the stamp of Epaminondas, probably not even of Pelopidas. As Greeks and freemen, they entreated aid to rescue them frcan such a calamity. He was himself aware that the real sym- pathies of the Greeks were rather adverse than favourable to his success. Yet Napoleon thought himself entitled to reckon upon them as if they had been Frenchmen, and to denounce the Germans in the service of Russia as traitors who had forfeited the allegiance which they owed to him. These horsemen, like the Thessalians, charged in compact order, carrying as their principal weapon of offence, not javelins to be hurled, but the short thrusting-pike for close combat. ' * o Farther diaua wcrc as yet but imperfectly subdued, seconded of Baktrlr ^^ ^^^^^ resistance was by wide spaces of sandy and sog- desert, by the neighbourhood of the Scythian diana. If therefore there were any man who stood high in the service, or was privileged to speak his mind freely to Alexander, it was Kleitus. 3) gives a different narrative of the death of Spitamenes. Some Greeks and Macedonians had already rendered to him this homage. Ml the Macedonians; i^ho (he said) would assuredly wonbip Alexander after his death, and ought in justice to worship him during his life, forthwith \ This harangue was applauded, and similar senti* ments were enforced, by others favourable to the plan ; who proceeded to set the example of imme- diate compliance, and were themselves the first to tender worship. m T 0.^" was at first reported to be dead, to the great con- be esta- sternation and distress of the army. 73 of bis work), noticed by all observers, render every attempt at sucli identification conjectural— see Wood's Journey to the Oxus, p. Now the restored democrats, though owing their * Diodor. That assembly «" «fnon- y r 11 qualified was composed of every one who chose to enter, pcrtons. This was in every sense an impolitic proceeding; for the restored exiles, chiefly poor men, took it as an insult to themselves, and became only the more embittered, exclaiming against the oligarchs who were trying to exclude them.