Even microscopic abrasions on mucous membranes are sufficient to allow viral entry.
HSV asymptomatic shedding occurs at some time in most individuals infected with herpes.
Herpes whitlow is a painful infection that typically affects the fingers or thumbs.
On occasion, infection occurs on the toes or on the nail cuticle.
This theory has been contested, however, since HSV is detected in large numbers of individuals having never experienced facial paralysis, and higher levels of antibodies for HSV are not found in HSV-infected individuals with Bell's palsy compared to those without.
In the presence of a certain gene variation (APOE-epsilon4 allele carriers), HSV-1 appears to be particularly damaging to the nervous system and increases one's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
It is a rare but serious condition, usually caused by vertical transmission of HSV-1 or -2) from mother to newborn.
As a result of primary infection, the body produces antibodies to the particular type of HSV involved, preventing a subsequent infection of that type at a different site.
In HSV-1-infected individuals, seroconversion after an oral infection prevents additional HSV-1 infections such as whitlow, genital herpes, and herpes of the eye.
The appearance and distribution of sores in these individuals typically presents as multiple, round, superficial oral ulcers, accompanied by acute gingivitis.
Adults with atypical presentation are more difficult to diagnose.